Apply Massive Effort to Get Results

Apply Massive Effort to Get Results

When we set goals but direct limited energy towards fulfilling them and avoiding distractions, we get limited results. Developing skills, learning information in school, following diet and fitness plans, and nurturing relationships require focused sustained effort to succeed.

Inertia is powerful

We  enthusiastically embrace a diet or exercise plan, sign up for a class, or decide on a skill to develop and work through tasks enjoying the accomplishment. Then we hit a wall. We get bored. We get off schedule. We don’t see results. We question why we started this in the first place. Our natural tendency is to stop or slow the effort until we return to the inertia from which we began. We know a little more but we didn’t accomplish the goal, perhaps feel a bit guilty and defeated, and return to our regularly scheduled programming.

Massive effort is needed to push through barriers

When faced with the wall we have choices:

  • Stop immediately
  • Muddle through with little effort and eventually quit
  • Break through or climb over the wall

The difference between me casually leaning on my car and pushing it is massive effort. I can lean on my car and my weight may shift it slightly but the suspension will ensure that it doesn’t move. However, if I lean hard into the car, shoulder pressed against the trunk, legs pushing with great force, face grimaced with strain, and arms tensed with energy directed into the vehicle I get results.

Businessman pushing his car at the side of the roadNothing seems to happen at first and I continue to push but then feel the slightest movement in the car. I take short steps and force energy from my legs into the car and after a few short steps the motion of the car is more pronounced. I can take gradually longer strides directing energy into the car until I find that I am pushing less but the car is continuing to move. I can then jog while pushing the car as it moves under its own power with limited input from me. It took massive effort to transfer to start the movement and less to continue the movement.

Nothing happens until you put your head down, focus your energy, and keep pushing until something moves. You struggle with Algebra, until you don’t. You wrestle with reading or writing that book, until you don’t. You fight your resistance to the diet or exercise program until it becomes something your body seeks. THAT is when you see the biggest results. If you give up you gain nothing.

Diet and exercise example

I noticed this with diet and exercise. I worked out several times a week and embraced a healthier diet. While I felt better than without these choices, my weight range was still too high and my workouts were not challenging. It was better than nothing but there was something better than this.

I read (and watched a Google Talks video) about magician Penn Jillette’s drastic “potato diet” where he ate only plain potatoes for two weeks then added vegetable stews to trim 75 pounds from his 322 pound frame in just 83 days. The reason?

“The thing is, I don’t respect moderation so I had to do stuff really intense,” he said. “What I was most surprised about was I used to consider myself a happy guy. I look back on it now and I kind of, sort of wasn’t. I feel so great now. It’s night and day.”

Nutritionists and doctors got distracted on the pros and cons of the one food diet, the nutritional effects, and other health factors and completely missed the point. It wasn’t the diet itself, it was drastic action, not moderation, that was the kick start for his weight loss. He gradually adopted a mostly vegan diet and has worked to maintain his health and weight.

This is what got my attention. I was eating healthy and so obviously my diet would keep me in a 2 pound range but I needed something more drastic to get down to the healthy weight and then use my normal diet to sustain that. Additionally, if I wanted to see better results in my energy and strength I would need to intensify my workouts.

The results have been great. I have broken through my weight plateau on a lower calorie diet and work out until I feel I’m ready to be sick. As a result my body feels stronger, I have more energy at work, and am noticing the weight loss. The type of diet wasn’t important (though I am NOT a one-potato man) it just had to be easy to follow for a given period to reduce the likelihood of giving it up. I add variety to my workouts so they are not boring but do not diminish the intensity. Your diet and exercise program should not be a prison but should challenge you and reward your efforts. Find the ones that work for you instead of the latest fads. The difference maker is the intensity of the effort you exert.

Apply effort to work and personal goals

Have you set goals to develop professional skills or achieve goals? You’ve probably considered some things you need to do to achieve those goals. What drastic change do you need to propel you forward, develop strong momentum that will carry you forward towards meeting those goals? Do you need to block time, get an accountability partner or coach, or make an investment? Usually we can identify one task that if we apply massive effort to move it forward will cause us to move much closer to our goal and provide incentive to keep progressing. Maybe you are stagnant and you need to big challenge or a new path. Identify what you need to break the inertia and apply the energy to that effort. But, as they saying goes, “If you keep doing what you have been doing you will keep getting what you have always gotten.”

Reference:

ABC News: Illusionist Penn Jillette on Shedding 100 Pounds

 

 

Book Review: The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us

The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive UsThe Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us
by Christopher Chabris

I do not not trust my eyes or my memory as confidently as I did in the past. It is not because of age but wisdom. I’ve read several books on analytic thinking, scientific discoveries on how our memories are formed and reconstructed, and common observation failures as outlined in this book. The more I read, the more I realize that I must, as The New York Times review observed, be humble about my observation abilities.

This book reflects the foolishness of exalting the importance of eyewitness testimony above other empirical data in investigations and court cases. The eyes do not always have it and we can sometimes see but not see. I would not believe it but having failed to see the gorilla as I dutifully counted the basketball passes on the video described in this book, I am convinced. The book also explains why failing to register everything we see is not a failure or weakness but a neurological necessity to keep us from sensory overload.

The description of various observational experiments and examples from business and law enforcement reinforced the validity of the book’s arguments. However, the authors did not leave readers to bemoan their condition or completely distrust their senses but provide techniques to help readers observe and understand common blind spots and how to compensate for them in their thinking and with interactions with others.

Buy from Amazon (affiliate link)

Book Review: The Effective Executive

The Effective Executive: The Definitive Guide to Getting the Right Things DoneThe Effective Executive: The Definitive Guide to Getting the Right Things Done
by Peter F. Drucker

Originally written in 1967 by the father of business management, this book will help any business person journey towards greater responsibility and success. Having defined what an “Effective Executive” is, Drucker emphasizes that effectiveness is a learned skill. By examining what one can contribute to the success of the enterprise, and thus one’s personal success,

Drucker stresses the importance of managing one’s time, priorities, and playing to your strengths. A key part of business success is effective decision-making and Drucker breaks down the decision-making process and how to make effective decisions.

Much of Drucker’s wisdom is identifying personal and business processes that are dysfunctional and fixing, changing, or abandoning them. The book is filled with key questions that a business person must ask themselves to shed light on the path to choose and what to avoid. It is the most concise book of organizational management and professional development I have read and the principles are timeless. It is the one book I consistently recommend to young people entering the business world.

Buy at Amazon (affiliate link)

Book Review: The Hand Behind The Mouse

The Hand Behind the MouseThe Hand Behind the Mouse
by Leslie Iwerks

It was Iwerks who, as Walt’s lead animator, created Mickey Mouse and Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. Disney’s empire was growing due to the great success of Iwerk’s animated classics like the Silly Symphonies and the popular Mickey Mouse cartoons.

As with many business and creative ventures, success strained the close friendship and Iwerks left Walt Disney to open his own studio. Although Iwerks was a great talent, the promotion abilities of Walt Disney were equally responsible for the success of their animated creations. Iwerks was not able to create characters or films to compete effectively with Disney. Eventually he closed his studio and, after doing some freelancing work for a few years, returned to Disney. To enhance your reading experience, watch the cartoons mentioned in the book on YouTube as the book gives some insights into the cartoons that you might not notice otherwise.

After returning to Disney, Iwerks incredible imagination and inventive brilliance shone. He developed the xerographic technologies used to create Disney animated classics and the live action techniques used in classic films such as Mary Poppins. Disney also brought Iwerks into his greatest venture, creating attractions for Disneyland park.

This was one of those books that I almost gave up eating and hygiene habits in order to finish. The brilliance of this behind the scenes legend is one of the little known stories of the successful Disney empire. His quirky sense of humor comes out in his animated features, especially those produced in his own studio. The drama of the working relationship and friendship between Disney and Iwerks reveals the humanity of these icons of animation. It provides insight into directing genius and creativity towards a successful career.

Disney fans will love the book but I think creatives of all types: computer programmers, artists, inventors, and writers will benefit from the lesson of uniting hard work, teamwork, alliances, and financial support with creativity and talent to unleash your imagination to the world.

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Nick Saban on the Scoreboard That Matters

Nick Saban on the Scoreboard That Matters

bama-picIn the post-win news conference after Alabama beat USC in the 2016 season opener, Alabama head football coach Nick Saban shared insights on the team preparation and attitude that are important for personal and professional success.

  1. Focus on your internal scoreboard, not the external scoreboard (wins, praise, hype, rewards…).
  2. Continually improve your skills and performance, especially when you’ve had success.
  3. Challenge your experienced personnel to improve their performance and mentor the younger players.
  4. Train your inexperienced team members early and give them practical experience so they will be ready to step into their expected role at an unexpected time.
  5. Develop a disciplined proven system of excellence that focuses on what you can control, infuse it into the culture, then trust the process to prepare you and your team for any challenge.

“If you want to know the truth about it, I wasn’t pleased with the way we played. And, again, you know, if you look at your internal scoreboard rather than the external scoreboard and you say, “What do we need to do to improve? What do we need to do to get better?” Well, you just get satisfied with the result that we got. So you don’t take coaching, you don’t try to improve, you don’t think that there are things that we can improve on, then we’ve got some really tough games with some really good teams. If we don’t get better, we’re going to struggle. And we play some of those teams in very tough places to play.

So my focus with our team right now is what can we do better? How can we get better? How can every guy improve? How can we get more guys to play better? And, look, I’m happy that we won. And I’m proud of our team for beating a good team. And I don’t want you to think that I’m not. …we have a lot of young guys playing out there now. If you notice, when those second teams went in, there was a whole bunch of freshmen out there. Well, those guys are going to have to grow up, all right. Because they’re going to be the depth of this team. And, if we lose players, they’re going to have to play. So we’re going to need those guys to improve dramatically.

And I think every guy needs to look at what they can do to get better and make their unit better and their team better. Look, you’ve got to trust in the plan, you’ve got to trust in your teammates, and you’ve got to trust in yourself that you can do your job on a consistent basis. And our consistency wasn’t always great, you know, tonight, especially on offense. So it’s definitely something we need to get better at.”

Is Email the Scapegoat for Dysfunctional Practices?

Like the cycles of seasons, a parade of articles calling for the death of email regularly march through the business press. Praise of organizations that banned email in favor of direct messages, a return to phone calls and desk visits, or automated systems that shut down email during “non-work hours” are offered as saviors for our email plagued society.

Like most knowledge workers, I’ve had my struggles with email but when I hear the cacophony of voices with pitchforks and torches are calling for the death of email, it is apparent that the technology is not the problem, it is how people manage it.

What’s Really the Problem

Who is to blame for your “always on” feeling? Were you instructed to check email on your smartphone at all hours? Do you feel that others will not think you professional if you do not answer an email at 11 pm or on the beach with your family? Certainly, some organizations may explicitly require you to be always checking but I hope they compensate you accordingly or, if they have no sense of boundaries, you find a healthier environment. Otherwise, honestly ask yourself who put this expectation in place: your organization or your insecurity?

Do you feel a disconnect from other employees? Then occasionally use the phone or make a desk visit. Go with coworkers to lunch or walk together during a break. As I’ll note below, realize that what seems better to you could be disruptive to your colleague.

Are there better tools than email? Email is not the universal solution to all business communication challenges. Project communication is probably handled better in a project workspace where document circulation and communication is centralized. Some communications are better handled through phone, visit, or texting. Because email has been abused or forced into communication situations that are inappropriate doesn’t mean that all email should be banned.

It may be that you work in a dysfunctional organization that places unrealistic demands on employees and uses email as the tool to propagate the problems. But that is not the fault of the technology and, if email didn’t exist, certainly another means would encourage ineffective interactions.

In Praise of Email

I come not to bury email but to praise it. For all of its problems, it is the perfect solution for asynchronous communication,

Focused Work: Productivity experts understand that some of the best work is performed when a person is able to focus on a task for a specified period of time and get into a flow state. However, interruptions disrupt that flow and degrade productivity as one returns back to the task. Those who advocate calling, desk visits, and instant messaging as the primary medium fail to realize that the priority of the caller should not dictate the priority of the recipient. If I have designated 30-40 minutes for focused work, I can cut off my email and silence my phone but if you walk into my office with some matter that is not urgent because you hate email, you will disrupt my work that I have deemed important. When you email me (or leave a voicemail), I can give it proper attention at the end of that focused work session.

Task Triage: Even when a person is not in focused work, email allows a productive person to triage what needs attention now and what should be delayed in favor of another task. Calling or texting just adds another channel that I must track for task management outside of my inbox whereas the email inbox becomes a good centralized location for current actionable items. As a GTD’er, I do consolidate inboxes but my email grouping system allows for efficient task organization of work that comes in my most commonly used channel.

Thoughtful Support: With email, I can see your subject and review the matter and thoughtfully respond. I will probably give a better answer when I can think about it than when I am on the phone with you and must answer immediately with whatever is on the top of my mind minus any distractions going on during your call. Of course, a scheduled call with a proposed subject helps with this issue.

Recommendations

The Franklin Covey organization explains the solution well in its 5 Choices program; Rule your technology, don’t let it rule you. Great advice for email, social media, and other technology. Here are some of my recommendations for handling email effectively:

  • Unless directed otherwise, answer email when appropriate for you. Some people send an email at 7 pm because they just remembered something that they need to share and expect that others will read and respond the next morning. You are probably not expected to respond unless it is an emergency and, if it is an emergency, wouldn’t someone call you?
  • Learn to write effective emails. Take more time up front to learn to communicate succinctly and effectively. It will help in more areas of life than just email.
  • Use rules to automatically direct newsletters and similar email to a folder for batch processing during down time.
  • Customize notification rules to only provide screen and sound alerts when you get emails from key individuals.
  • Delete or archive old emails and get them out of your active inbox. If not, how do you know what is important and actionable and what no longer needs attention?
  • Don’t create complex folder structures for saved emails. I have a couple for key projects, one for temporary projects that I don’t want to keep in the inbox, and one called “Archive” that everything else worth saving goes into. The search function gets everything I need.
  • Use categories to sort emails in the Inbox by generic reusable names (Defined Task 1, Defined Task 2…, Document Review, Waiting For…) and only keep the last email in a conversation thread. When you finish tasks and drag them into an archive folder so you can reuse the category.

Additional Reading

Book Review: Decision Points

Decision PointsDecision Points
by George W. Bush

I imagine fans of President Bush will love this book and those who demonized him will ignore it or blindly attack it. When we consider that any leader, whether in business or government, has great characteristics, significant weaknesses, blind spots, and well-focused vision we can become more understanding of their role in organizations and history. President Bush was not a perfect man and the decisions of his presidency, like all of his successors, has led to good and bad consequences for the present. Personality politics will judge your person a saint and the opposition person a demon. Ultimately, future historians will better judge the impact of the leaders of our day.

Politics aside, and whether you agree with his decisions or not, the book provides good insights behind President Bush’s decisions and his decision-making process. Such analysis is helpful for leaders in complex organizations. He provides deeper analysis of the issues around major decisions of his presidency than the dismissive reports of the often hostile media. I appreciated his admission of weaknesses and faults in some decisions. On a higher level, provides some good general principles about complex decision-making and taking responsibility for the consequences.

Buy from Amazon (affiliate link)

Book Review: Curation Nation

Curation Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers Are CreatorsCuration Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers Are Creators
by Steven Rosenbaum

I love the pursuit of knowledge and yet recognize the challenge of making sense of the avalanche of data that overcomes us each day burying us in the relevant and irrelevant. Some technological tools help us sort and aggregate data but ultimately the greatest value comes through wise curation of data.

Like reviewers who help us appreciate, discover, or avoid books, restaurants, and movies, adept curators help us make wise choices with limited time and resources to focus on information with high-value return. Curators who are focused on their own financial gain or shilling for a particular point-of-view will face a narrow audience or complete rejection. Good curators provide what we need, introduce us to obscure information, reveal developing issues or technology before it is mainstream, and make sense of the flood of information.

This is an excellent book on rise of data curation on the Internet and addresses content sharing issues and debates. The book also explores the challenges of how curation can or should look and where it is going. This is especially important for those developing an Internet channel.

“The future of search is verbs” – Bill Gates (Curation Nation, p. 220). People search because they want to act! Curation provides information to help them act.

Buy from Amazon (affiliate link)

Book Review: Re-work

ReworkRework
by Jason Fried

The Internet has transformed how many businesses operate and Re-Work clearly explains how to build and run a business in this new era. However, in contrast to some Internet-era business approaches that encourage fantasy accounting and venture capital infusions until the patient is alive, the author encourages bootstrapping, building within real-world financial considerations, and being methodical.

Using examples from his company’s internal technology development, the author shares ideas on using and managing a distributed workforce operating out of the normal office structure. I applaud his desire to kill the oft misused word “entrepreneur.” I also appreciate the focus on building a business that creates value for the customer, not just a financial parachute for the founders.

Focus on business guides instead of plans. Business plans are based on thinking in the past about how things will be in the future. When you are in that “future” don’t be constrained by the plans of the past. View it for what it is: an educated guess from the past about how things would be and what you wanted to accomplish. As things change, adjust. Don’t be constrained.

Great book for rethinking the modern workplace and company.

Buy from Amazon (affiliate link)

Ineffective Manager Communication and Disengaged Employees

 According to Gallup’s State of the American Workplace report (2013), 70% of American employees are disengaged from their work leading to workplace dysfunction, customer dissatisfaction, and a negative impact on the organization’s finances,  which led its CEO, Jim Clifton, to suggest that hiring managers is the most important leadership decision. The most significant impact on employee engagement is a manger who communicates effectively. Ineffective manager communication skills create distrust, confusion, and apathy among workers. A proficient communicator provides a real financial value to the organization beyond the intrinsic humanistic value of treating employees with respect. This paper describes the value of manager communication skills and the direct effect on employee satisfaction and productivity, team cohesiveness, and ultimately the success or failure of the organization.

Link between manager communication and employee engagement

Employee engagement is the best measure of manager communication effectiveness. Confusion exists in academic and popular business literature about what constitutes employee engagement and no generally accepted definition exists. Welch (2011) examined the evolution of the employee engagement concept from the 1990’s noting the difficulty in developing an accepted definition, the confusing use of the term among academics and business consultants, and the question of whether engagement is an attitude or psychological state which can be affected by influence or a personality trait which is relatively fixed. For this paper I will use the description that is consistent with most academic literature as described by Markos and Sridevi (2010): “engagement is about passion and commitment-the willingness to invest oneself and expand one’s discretionary effort to help the employer succeed, which is beyond simple satisfaction with the employee arrangement or basic loyalty to the employer.” (p. 90) 

Negative impact of disengaged employees

According to Leary, Green, Denson, Schoenfeld, Henley, and Langford (2013), employee disengagement is a significant factor in workplace burnout, dysfunctional teams, poor customer service, and negative financial impact on the organization. According to Gallup (2013), “…actively disengaged employees cost the U.S. between $450 billion to $550 billion each year in lost productivity. They are more likely to steal from their companies, negatively influence their coworkers, miss workdays, and drive customers away.” (pp. 12-13) Leary et al. (2013) observe that “managerial incompetence is devastating to employee engagement and job satisfaction, and contributes significantly to employee burnout.” (p. 113) Understanding the impact of dysfunctional manager behavior and communication ability on employee engagement is important for correcting disruptive behaviors and encouraging good communication skills.

Impact of dysfunctional managers

Leary et al. (2013) described three dysfunctional leader dispositions and their impact on employee engagement, including manifestations in the communication between manager and employees:
  • Moving Away includes behaviors such as withdrawal and disengagement which leads to infrequent or unclear communication but also includes yelling, threatening, and belittling employees.
  • Moving Against behavior involves disrespectful and derogatory comments and manipulation which creates an environment of anger and distrust. This behavior also includes impulsive communication that creates confusion and wasted resources as employees follow directions that are ill-conceived and likely abandoned for the next impulsive decision.
  • Moving Toward is characterized by leader inaction, decision avoidance, and disloyalty to subordinates and is often accompanied by micromanagement and frequent criticism.

Organizations who want to minimize the potential for employee disengagement should remove or retrain leaders exhibiting dysfunctional characteristics. A successful organization needs leaders throughout the enterprise who are proficient in their work and actively practice employee engaging behaviors. 

High ROI of effective manager communication

According to Welch (2011), effective leader communication is a critical factor for creating high employee engagement and a sense of purpose in the organization. The communicative leader creates a positive work environment in which the employee can develop professionally and serve confidently. Xu and Thomas (2010) noted that managers who showed concern for employees, articulated a vision, and communicated effectively engaged employees, encouraged positive organizational citizenship, and buffered them from negative characteristics of the job. Confused and poorly integrated communications negatively affected trust, relationships, and management credibility. (K. Mishra, Boynton, & A. Mishra, 2014)
 Effective manager communication has a demonstrable positive effect on the profitability of the organization. 
  • According to Gallup (2013), “work units in the top 25% of Gallup’s Q12 Client Database have significantly higher productivity, profitability, and customer ratings, less turnover and absenteeism, and fewer safety incidents than those in the bottom 25%.” (p. 9) 
  • A study of “…360,000 employees from 41 companies in the world’s 10 economically strong countries found that both operating margin and net profit margins reduced over a three year period in companies with low engagement,” and contrasted with opposite effects in companies that encouraged employee engagement. (Markos and Sridevi, 2010, p. 92) 
  • Xu and Thomas (2010) cited several studies concluding that “higher levels of employee engagement are associated with increased return on assets, higher earning per employee, higher performance, greater sales growth, and lower absenteeism.” (p. 400) 
  • Manager and employee interactions that encourage engagement promote human dignity and make a positive impact on organizational profitability and customer interactions. Such behavior can be a competitive advantage.  

What effective manager communication looks like

Communicating vision

In order to drive organizational success and employee engagement, effective communication practices must begin with senior leadership communicating a vision for the company and its employees. To be effective, the top leader vision must be “…a tantalizing, sought after future state; a mental imagery that is well-articulated with widespread communication; and a model which contains processes that enable followers to achieve it.” (J. Mayfield, M. Mayfield, & Sharbrough III, 2015, p. 103) Leadership commitment to the mission and vision must be genuine and evangelized otherwise it will be rejected as a corporate fad. (Markos & Sridevi, 2010) Managers must make the vision of the top leaders actionable and relevant to the roles of the employees under their supervision.

Empowering employees

Development Dimensions International (DDI, 2005), as cited in Markos & Sridevi (2010), states that a manager must, among other things, communicate in a way that empowers, supports, encourages and develops employees and encourages collaboration with the team. 

Connecting the employee to the organizational vision

Managers demonstrate the value of an employee by sharing the organizational vision and the employee’s role in making the vision a reality and engage with the employee personally to support their professional growth, recognize achievement, correct undesirable behaviors in a constructive way, listen to their ideas and concerns, and demonstrate genuine interest in the employee’s well-being. (Markos & Sridevi, 2010; K. Mishra, Boynton, & A. Mishra, 2014) The manager must also communicate effectively with the workgroup to promote productivity and harmony among the employees who work together.

Importance of active listening

Effective communication skills require an ability to listen as well as talk. Managers must promote two-way communication to allow employees to provide input, show respect for their views, and involve them in decision making. (Markos & Sridevi, 2010) In the modern workplace, managers may be tempted to conduct most communication through email. However, face-to-face communication is considered more reliable and credible than written communication because the employee can evaluate the verbal message with non-verbal cues, such as voice tone, body language, and facial expressions, for validation or discrepancies. (K. Mishra, Boynton, & A. Mishra, 2014) 
Communication conveys a sense of worth to another person. When talking with employees, leaders should use empathetic language for positive and negative events affecting the employee to convey a sense of humanity and concern for the emotional well-being of the employee. (J. Mayfield & M. Mayfield, 2012) Managerial success depends on continual dialog and respectful interaction with employees. “…Leadership that provides a supportive, trusting environment allows employees to fully invest their energies into their work roles.” (Xu and Thomas, 2010, p. 401)

An investment worth making

Many businesses would invest significant time and money into a technical solution that would improve employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and financial profitability. Numerous studies prove that these results can be obtained with managers who communicate effectively. Managers with dysfunctional communication skills have a negative impact in the workplace and the organizational mission regardless of their technical expertise or seniority with the company. Managers with effective communication skills generate higher employee engagement resulting in productivity and profitability gains for the organization while enjoying career advancement. Developing communication skills does not require a significant financial investment or innate ability but is the key to managerial success.

References

  • Gallup. (2013). State of the American workplace: employee engagement insights for U.S. business leaders. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/services/178514/state-american-workplace.aspx
  • Leary, T., Green, R., Denson, K., Schoenfeld, G., Henley, T., & Langford, H. (2013). The relationship among dysfunctional leadership dispositions, employee engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 16(2), 112-130. doi: 10.1037/h0094961
  • Markos, S. & Sridevi, M. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89-96.
  • Mayfield, J. & Mayfield, M. (2012). The relationship between leader motivating language and self-efficacy: A partial least squares model analysis. Journal of Business Communication, 49(4), 357-376. doi: 10.1177/0021943612456036
  • Mayfield, J., Mayfield, M., & Sharbrough III, W. (2015). Strategic vision and values in top leaders’ communications: Motivating language at a higher level. International Journal of Business Communication, 52(1), 97-121. doi: 10.1177/2329488414560282
  • Mishra, K., Boynton, L., & Mishra, A. (2014). Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(2), 183-202. doi: 10.1177/2329488414525399
  • Welch, M. (2011). The evolution of the employee engagement concept: Communication implications. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(4), 328-346. doi: 10.1108/13563281111186968
  • Xu, J. & Thomas, H. C. (2011). How can leaders achieve high employee engagement? Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 32(4), 399-416. doi: 10.1108/01437731111134661